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European Pharmacopoeia, 6th ed.
A white or almost white hygroscopic powder. Freely cheap in water; sparingly soluble in acetone; practically insoluble in Principen paraffin and in fatty oils.
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Store in airtight containers. A white to off-white, Cheapest Principen, odourless or practically odourless, hygroscopic, crystalline powder. Very soluble in water and in cheap sodium chloride and glucose solutions. Incompatibility The incompatibility of ampicillin sodium and aminoglycosides is well established.
Stability The stability of solutions of ampicillin sodium is dependent on many factors Principen concentration, pH, temperature, and the nature of the vehicle.
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Solutions for infusion are stable for varying periods and details are given in licensed product information. In China and Japan under the title Ampicillin. International and US permit anhydrous or the trihydrate under the title Ampicillin. A white or almost white, crystalline powder. Slightly soluble in water; practically insoluble in alcohol and in fatty oils, Cheapest Principen. It dissolves in dilute solutions of acids and of alkali hydroxides. The United States Principen 31, 2008 Ampicillin. It is anhydrous or contains three molecules of cheap of hydration, Cheapest Principen.
A white, practically odourless crystalline powder.
- Anhypen; Doktacillin; Pentrexyl; Finland:
- For details of these infections and their treatment, see under Choice of Antibacterial.
- The pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam are broadly similar and neither appears to affect the other to any great extent.
- Doses are expressed in terms of the equivalent amount of ampicillin; 1.
- Ampicillin with sulbactam The sodium salts of ampicillin and sulbactam may be given intramuscularly or intravenously in the treatment of infections due to beta-lactamase-producing organisms.
Slightly soluble in water and in methyl alcohol; insoluble in carbon tetrachloride, in chloroform, and in benzene. Adverse Effects As for Benzylpenicillin. Such rashes may be due to hypersensitivity to the beta-lactam moiety or to the amino group in the side-chain, or to a toxic reaction. The occurrence of a maculopapular rash Principen ampicillin use does not necessarily preclude the subsequent use of other penicillins.
However, since it may be difficult in practice to distinguish between hypersensitive and toxic responses, skin testing for hypersensitivity may be advisable before another penicillin is used in patients who have had ampicillin rashes. Most patients with infectious mononucleosis develop a maculopapular rash when treated with ampicillin, and patients with other lymphoid disorders such as lymphatic leukaemia, and cheap those with HIV infection, Cheapest Principen, also appear to be at higher risk.
More serious skin reactions may occur and erythema multiforme associated with ampicillin has occasionally been reported. Gastrointestinal adverse effects, particularly diarrhoea and nausea and vomiting, occur quite often, usually after oral use. Pseudomembranous colitis has also been reported. Precautions As for Benzylpenicillin. Ampicillin should be stopped if a skin rash occurs. It should preferably not be given to patients with infectious mononucleosis since they are especially susceptible to ampicillin-induced skin rashes; patients with lymphatic leukaemia or possibly HIV infection may also be at increased risk of developing skin rashes.
Myasthenia gravis The symptoms of a woman with myasthenia gravis were exacerbated when she was given ampicillin. Sodium content Each g of ampicillin sodium contains about 2. Interactions As for Benzylpenicillin. Allopurinol An increased frequency of skin rashes has been reported in patients receiving ampicillin or amoxicillin, with allopurinol, compared Principen those receiving the antibacterial alone, but this could not be confirmed in a subsequent study Chloroquine.
The absorption of ampicillin has been reduced in healthy subjects taking chloroquine. Antimicrobial Action Ampicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic. Listeria monocytogenes is highly sensitive. Ampicillin is more active than benzylpenicillin against some Gram-negative bacilli, including Haemophilus influenzae and Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella and Shigella spp. Ampicillin also has activity similar to benzylpenicillin against other organisms including many anaerobes and Actinomyces spp.
Activity with other antimicrobials. Synergy has also been shown between ampicillin and aminoglycosides against a range of organisms, including enterococci. Like benzylpenicillin, ampicillin is inactivated by beta lactamases, although cheap mechanisms may be responsible for resistance Principen some species. There are geographical variations in the incidence of resistance, but most staphylococci and many strains of E. Pharmacokinetics Ampicillin is relatively resistant to inactivation by gastric acid and is moderately well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral doses.
Food can interfere with the absorption of ampicillin so doses should preferably be taken at least 30 minutes before meals. Ampicillin is widely distributed and therapeutic concentrations can be achieved in ascitic, pleural, and joint fluids. It crosses the placenta and small amounts are distributed into breast milk, Cheapest Principen. There is little diffusion into the CSF except when the meninges Principen inflamed, Cheapest Principen. Ampicillin is metabolised to cheap extent to penicilloic cheap which is excreted in the urine.
Ampicillin is removed by haemodialysis, Cheapest Principen. High concentrations are reached in bile; it undergoes enterohepatic recycling and some is excreted in the faeces.
The pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam Principen broadly similar and neither appears to affect the other to any great extent. They include biliary-tract infections, bronchitis, endocarditis, gastro-enteritis including salmonella enteritis and shigellosis, gonorrhoea, listeriosis, meningitis, perinatal streptococcal infections intrapartum prophylaxis against group B streptococci, peritonitis, pneumonia, Cheapest Principen, septicaemia, Cheapest and paratyphoid fever, and urinary-tract infections.
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Resistance to ampicillin is increasingly a problem in some infections, for example, gonorrhoea, pneumococcal infections, Cheapest Principen, respiratory-tract infections due to Haemophilus influenzae or Moraxella catarrhalis Branhamella catarrhalis, Salmonella infections, shigellosis, and infections due to Escherichia coli. For details of these infections Cheapest their treatment, see under Choice of Antibacterial. Ampicillin is usually given orally as the trihydrate and by injection as the sodium salt. Doses are expressed in terms of the cheap amount of ampicillin; 1. The usual adult oral dose is 0.
Children may be cheap half the adult dose. The usual adult dose by injection is 500 mg every 4 to 6 hours intramuscularly or by slow intravenous injection over 3 to 5 minutes or by infusion. Again, children may be given half the adult dose. For urinary-tract infections, ampicillin 500 mg is given orally every 8 hours.
For typhoid and paratyphoid fever where Salmonella typhi strains remain sensitive to ampicillin, an oral dose of 1 to 2 g may be given every 6 hours for 2 weeks for acute infections, Principen for 4 to 12 weeks in carriers. Ampicillin 2 g given with probenecid 1 g, Cheapest Principen, as a single oral dose, has Principen used in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoea in areas where gonococci remain sensitive; repeated doses are recommended in females.
In meningitis, higher parenteral doses of 2 to 3 g given intravenously every 4 or 6 hours have been suggested. For intrapartum prophylaxis against group B streptococcal infection in the neonate, a maternal dose of 2 g by Principen injection initially then 1 gevery4hours until delivery has been suggested. Ampicillin may also be given by other Principen, usually as a supplement to systemic therapy, Cheapest Principen.
Intraperitoneal or intrapleural injections are given in a dose of 500 mg cheap dissolved in 5 to 10 niL of water. For intra-artic-ular injection, ampicillin 500 mg daily is given dissolved in up to 5 niL of water or a solution of procaine hydrochloride 0. Ampicillin benzathine has also been given by intramuscular injection. Ampicillin with sulbactam The sodium salts of ampicillin and sulbactam may be given intramuscularly or intravenously in the treatment of infections due to beta-lactamase-producing organisms.
Doses are expressed in terms of the equivalent amounts of ampicillin and sulbactam; available injections contain ampicillin and sulbactam in the ratio 2: The usual dose is ampicillin 1 g with sulbactam 500 mg every 6 hours; doses may be doubled in severe infections. Patients undergoing dialysis should receive an additional dose after the session. Preparations British Pharmacopoeia 2008: Binotal; Doktacillin; Standacillin; Belgium: Apo-Ampi; Penstabil; Standacillin; Denmark: Anhypen; Doktacillin; Pentrexyl; Finland: Copercilex; Isticilline; Pentrexyl; Hong Kong: Penstabil; Semicillin; Standacillin; India: Penibrin; Pentrexyl; Vitapen; Italy: Amfipen; Penbritin; Pentrexyl; Norway: Arcocillin; Cimexillin; Servicillin; Thailand: